New & Used Nissan Leaf: In Depth
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The Nissan Leaf is a compact five-door hatchback that has become the world's best-selling electric car. The Leaf is powered by a lithium-ion battery pack and can be recharged from the electric grid in seven hours or less.
As the first mass-market pure-electric car, the Leaf has become something of an icon since its introduction for the 2011 model year, just as the Toyota Prius has become the shorthand for hybrids around the globe.
The Leaf competes with a variety of different types of plug-in electric cars. These range from the Chevrolet Volt range-extended electric car to the Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid, and the more expensive but much more capable Tesla Model S all-electric luxury sport sedan. There are also several so-called compliance cars on sale in California to meet that state's zero-emission laws, but they are sold only there, and only in tiny volumes.
There have been essentially two sets of Nissan Leafs since its launch as a 2011 model. The 2011 and 2012 models were built in Japan, and suffered from the expensive Japanese yen as a result. When it moved Leaf production for North America to Tennessee, it made several important changes--and cut the price considerably. The company a new base-level Leaf S model, and made dozens of smaller changes to features and equipments in response to feedback from vocal and enthusiastic owners.
The latest Leaf models start under $30,000, which means that for California buyers, the effective price after a $2,500 state purchase rebate and a $7,500 Federal income-tax credit is below $20,000. Hawaii offers a $4,500 purchase rebate, Georgia offers a $5,000 income-tax credit, and there are a plethora of other state, local, and regional incentives as well. Those include he ability to travel with just a single occupant in the carpool lane on the crowded freeways of California.
All Nissan Leafs use a 24-kilowatt-hour lithium-ion battery pack built into the car's floorpan to power an 80-kilowatt (107-horsepower) electric motor that drives the front wheels. The compact Leaf offers enough interior room to deem it a midsize car, and its weight of well over 3,000 pounds is clearly more in line with the larger category. Like all electric cars, which can develop peak torque at 0 rpm, it is brisk off the line. Acceleration from zero to 60 mph is in the 10-second range, and top speed is limited to roughly 90 miles per hour.
Electric range for the latest Leafs is rated by the EPA at 84 miles, but that number is not directly comparable to range ratings from previous years, as the states of battery charge--whether to 80 percent (for longer battery life) or 100 percent (for maximum range)--were not consistent among the years. Gentle driving can produce real-world range up to 15 percent higher. Owners quickly learn, however, that range can vary from 65 to 100 miles depending on speed, temperature, and how much use is made of the Leaf's heater in cold weather.
Today's Leafs offer three trim levels: the base-level Leaf S model (it forgoes the alloy wheels, LED headlights, and navigation system that were standard on all 2011 and 2012 Leafs), the mid-level Leaf SV, and the top-of-the-line Leaf SL.
Significant changes to the Leaf for 2013 included relocation of a smaller battery charger from the load bay into the engine compartment, expanding cargo capacity. Equally important to owners' everyday usage was an optional 6.6-kilowatt charger that cut charging time for a fully depleted battery from seven hours to about four, using a 240-volt Level 2 charging station. (That power is the same kind used for electric stoves and clothes driers.) All Leafs come with a 110-volt charging cord for use with standard household current, but that will take up to 20 hours for a fully depleted pack.
Most Leafs can also "quick-charge" up to 80 percent of their battery capacity within 30 minutes at special "DC quick charging" charging stations that work on the Japanese CHAdeMO standard. Those stations are still rare, but are being rolled out in regions--Oregon and Washington, parts of Texas--that are working aggressively to adopt electric cars.
All Leafs except the base S model include the ability to pre-heat or pre-cool the car while it’s still plugged in, to reduce battery energy use. The pale grey coarse, velvety upholstery material is made from recycled plastic bottles and home appliances, and a black interior and leather seats are options.
The Leaf remains more expensive to buy than a comparably sized gas-powered hatch. Its financial advantage lies in operation costs, which are significantly lower than burning fuel. Even with fluctuation of electricity prices from region to region, the Leaf wins; the national average price per kilowatt-hour is around 12 cents, meaning it costs on average 3 cents per mile. That's compared to 16 cents per mile in a gas-powered car running at 25 mpg on $4/gallon fuel.
Nissan has hugely ambitious plans for selling tens or hundreds of thousands of electric cars in short order, and the Leaf is just the first of several battery-electric models it will launch this decade. Meanwhile, the Leaf is among the top three most common plug-in cars in North America--and it's just getting started.